KHARTOUM, (Sudanow)- Not for a second would we hesitate to say answer any question about which comes first that: the brain thinks and the heart beats, this is a belief that has been going on, for centuries, that is until recently, when a professor says time has come for us to reconsider this dictum. Professor Amnah al-Fekki Salih, argues that between the action and the thinking there is a very minuscule fraction of time which scientists failed to explain. She said this time was the time the heart issues the order, and the brain, receiving the order send signal for the concerned body part to act. Her argument is not only based on religious belief, but is fully backed by new scientific finding which time would prove to be correct and sound.
Interviewed by Ishraga Abas, sudanow.info.sd reporter, the Sudanese sciences professor, argues that:
-The operation of the heart is half a second ahead of the brain, the duration it needs to establish the idea, prepare the piece of information and transmit to the brain
I was faced with numerous pros and cons
My hypothesis does not contradict, but reinforces the views of the Muslim scholars
I utilized the research of the Western scholars but, contrary to them, I succeeded in confirming my hypothesis because I have considered the heart while they have excluded it
The new hypothesis will change many scientific theories in the West, including Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution
Following is the text of the interview:
Question: All scientists, predecessors and contemporary, believe that the brain is the source and center for the consciousness, ideas and mobility … but you have come up with a new hypothesis that contradicts centuries of thought… would you explain this hypothesis?
Answer: My hypothesis is that the heart is the source and origin of the intention and voluntary action. The heart creates the idea or intention, takes the decision of implementation and dispatches signals through electro-magnetic waves and certain hormones excreted by the heart to the brain for carrying out any voluntary action in cases of wakefulness. It is therefore the heart that creates the idea and takes the decision and it is the brain that discharges the task. God’s Prophet (PBUH) was right when he said: “Actions are based on intentions and every person gets what they intend”
Question: How do the mobility and behavior occur in cases of consciousness and wakefulness in accordance with this analysis?
Answer: Wakeful consciousness is a case that occurs when the heart emits to the brain signals containing information and decision it has already taken. Those signals are dispatched to the different centers of the brain for action. The emitted signals contain instructions for carrying out any action such as holding the pen and writing. If the person intends to write, this intention springs from the heart and (the task of the heart is creating the intention while the task of the brain is alerting the audio-visual senses for action. The heart sends a signal to the center of the hand in the brain, which forwards this signal to the brain crust, which in turn transmits it to the hand center, and thus the writing process is done by the mobility of the hand in compliance with the heart’s free will.
The consciousness hypothesis underlines that in order to carry out any voluntary action in the state of consciousness; there must be three basic centers – the heart, the brain and the organ. The role of the heart is that its nervous system carries out the thought processing and analyzes the information incoming from inside the heart (the intention) and from outside the heart, whether from the chest or any nervous cells in the body such as the skin directly through the blood and the electro-magnetic waves. This information may reach the heart from outside the body. After receiving the information, whether from inside or outside the body, the nervous heart system carries out the analysis and recognition processes and takes the appropriate decision and transmits the signals to the brain.
The role of the brain starts when the signals arrive from the heart to all centers of the brain, the most important of which are: 1) the voluntary mobility centers in the brain crust which engender any movement upon receiving the signal from the heart like writing, painting, playing a tune, etc, or in the legs area if the signal of the heart orders walking and the legs respond accordingly.
The role of the organ starts when any brain mobility center receives the signal; and having its center activated, the organ performs the movement like the hand for writing and the legs for walking. The hypothesis indicates that the brain is the origin of the involuntary movements only, such as the movement of the hands forward and backward during walking.
Question: How did you start contemplating this hypothesis and what were the observations that prompted it?
Answer: It is a long story that began when I was in the preparatory year of the University. I asked Professor Abdulla Al-Taieb whether there may be a function for the heart other than pumping the blood and responded by saying that there may be another function. When I began my medicine studies, I developed concern with the functions of heart. I contemplated Verse No 179 of Surah A’raf (The Heights): “Many are the Jinns and men we have made for Hell: they have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not and ears they see not. They are like cattle –nay more misguided: for they are heedless (of warning)." The word ‘understand’ was the key to my research. At this point, I must mention Professor Abdul Rahman Al-Agib who, in the 1970s, wrote a book titled (The Koran as a Key to Scientific Research). His theory has been confirmed, as the Koran is now the source of all sciences of medicine, physics, astronomy and chemistry. I am not saying this because am Muslim but because I noticed this during my research works in the United States of America.
Question: When did you start applying or testing this hypothesis?
Answer: It was in 1982 when I was sent for a scholarship in the United Kingdom where I presented this hypothesis; but the response of the academic institutions was that they could not assist me as there was no research on this issue and that they believe that the brain is the origin and source of the will and mobility.
I also discussed the idea with a number of Sudanese scientists and presented them with a paper on my research. Those included Professor Jaafer Sheikh Idriss, Professor Suleiman Salih Fidail, Professor Al-Dhaw Mukhtar and Professor Abdulla Al-Tayeb. Some of them told me that what I was trying to prove contradicts numerous concepts while others commented that this research requires much money and tremendous efforts. This proved true as I continued throughout the period from 1965 to 2012 trying to prove my concept and, praise be to Allah, I succeeded in the end.
After nearly four decades of research and contemplation, I was able to prove in April 2012 at Arizona University in the US, that the heart is the most important organ and is the source of voluntary mobility. The analytical research confirmed this hypothesis by 100%. The consciousness studies research center of the university awarded me the patent of the intellectual royalty in acknowledgement of its soundness. The Director of the Center, Professor Stewart Hameruf said he supports my ideas and is looking forward to my further efforts for conducting laboratory research to prove the hypothesis
Question: Were there scientists who shared this thought with you and have you made use of relevant research works?
Answer:American scientist Benjamin Lebed spent 40 years analyzing this question but could not prove anything because he based his theory on the concept that the brain is the source and origin of mobility, will and implementation, i.e., only from the brain to the brain. He found in his accounts that there is half a second, may be more or less, between the intention and the implementation that does not appear in the brain planning. He could not explain the origin of this fraction of time that precedes the start of the movement.
I benefitted from his research and managed to prove that the heart action precedes the action of the brain and that there is half a second of the action of the heart which is the time the heart spends for creating the thought, preparing the information and transmitting to the brain. In 1995, Canadian scientist John Armor managed to prove that the heart has a nervous system that has no relationship with the brain and I took this as a basis of my hypothesis and greatly benefitted from it. I also benefitted from the explanations and meanings of the verses of the Koran which contained references to the heart and such terms as to understand, recognize, etc.
Question: Numerous scientific theories were based on the hypothesis that the brain is the origin of mobility and intention. What will be the impact of the new hypothesis you have proved?
Answer: The new hypothesis is due to change many concepts and sciences in the West and elsewhere, which were all, based on the premise that the brain is responsible for tasks being carried out by man. The Darwinian evolution theory, for instance, will lack foundation and so with political and social theories and those of education, ethics and spiritual values and many other sciences, which will be of no value. Following confirmation of this analysis and hypothesis, one American scientist declared the importance of the heart in establishing science and conserving the future of the coming generations by calling “Let us conserve our future”. The University of California appropriated 5 million dollars for scientific research that can bridge the gap between science and religion.
Question: Have you confronted any opposition by other scientists towards this hypothesis?
Answer: At first, some British scientists described my initial analysis as fanciful and did not approve of conducting the analysis and in 2009, arbitrators and reviewers of a specialized American magazine refused even to publish my relevant research.
Question: In opposition to this, have you received any support from other scientists?
Answer: Yes. When the arbitrators and reviewers turned down my thought in 2009, the American philosophical studies magazine contacted me and published the research in 2010. Specialized scientists in Malaysia who stressed the importance of its contents also supported it. Scientists in Arab and Muslim countries, including Qatar, also nodded for the hypothesis
Question: Does your research contradict the views of the Muslim jurisprudents and scholars since the Prophet (PBUH) Companions and those of the Islamic knowledge renaissance age such as Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rushd who explained the relationship between the heart and the brain in accordance with the Koran and Sunna of the Prophet (PBUH)?
Answer: In the contrary, it does not differ or contradicts those views. It rather, adds a brick to the bricks they have built as they have indicated this premise; but the laboratory empirical science was not available to them as it is for us at present. When he was once asked whether it is permitted to conduct research, one contemporary Muslim scholar of jurisprudence responded by underlining that research and contemplation never contracts any one of the Islamic tenets and that a physician has to contemplate and conduct research on verses of the Holy Koran
Question: When are you planning to start laboratory tests on this analysis?
Answer: I will start the tests immediately on the laboratory mice
Question: Are you going to conduct these tests in the Sudan?
Answer: No. The laboratories appropriate for such a research are not available in the Sudan. They are not either available in the Arab, African and Asian regions; they are found only in the United States of America, Canada and Sweden and, for this reason, I will do my research in one of those countries
Question: How are you going to finance the research?
Answer: I hope the state will assist and stretch a helping hand to me as this research is conducive to the Sudan’s scientific image. I also hope I will get assistance from the Arab and Islamic academic and scientific institutions in addition to institutions of the inimitable scientific characteristics in the Koran and Sunna in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere as the research props up the scientific status of the Arabs and Muslims
Question: What is the outstanding landmark in your professional life?
Answer: The study of anatomy in the schools of medicine as anatomy provides the community with a successful physician and a successful researcher too; I also believe in the importance of the scientific research and establishment of laboratories and other relevant infrastructure